International Healthcare Policy Health And Social Care Essay

This assignment deals with the impact that social and cultural issues have on attitudes towards healthcare using their chosen nation as an example; I should evaluate healthcare policy in one national context and explain the influences on policy formation, including impacts of funding issues. The comparison should be made to other national policies to show how different national policies arise. I should explain the structure of healthcare delivery in their chosen nation including an analysis of the organisations involved in healthcare and showing how this represents the translation of policy into practice. And also I should analyse practical barrier to the provision of healthcare in their chosen national context. All of these are covered in task 1 of this unit. Under task 2; Student should identify national and international public health campaigns and analyse their impact on the demand for healthcare in their chosen nation. Their analysis should look at the promotion of public health issues and how well this is achieved. And one thing more, student should identify current international or national health issues and assess how national policy accommodates these issues and the practical responses to these issues in their chosen national context. These assignments bring us new insight to the healthcare in the international sector as well as national. The example that I can cite is the issue of tuberculosis in national and international context.

Let me give you a bird’s eye view regarding tuberculosis. Tuberculosis remains one of the most devastating diseases in the world, affecting people of all ages across the globe. Despite rumours of its demise, tuberculosis remains one of the most deadly, and disabling, diseases in the developing world. According to the World Health Organization’s Global Burden of Disease project (Mathers 2002), in 2000 it was the eighth highest cause of death, and the tenth highest cause of disability adjusted life years (DALYs).

Tuberculosis (TB) is a common and often deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, usually ”Mycobacterium tuberculosis” in humans. Tuberculosis usually attacks the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body. It is spread through the air, when people who have the disease cough, sneeze, or spit. Most infections in humans result in an asymptomatic, latent infection, and about one in ten latent infections eventually progresses to active disease, which, if left untreated, kills more than half of its victims. Tuberculosis is most prevalent in developing nations and often coincides with malaria prevalence and acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or AIDS, and human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, infections. As an opportunistic disease, tuberculosis easily seats itself in carriers with weakened immune systems. When tuberculosis is a secondary infection in those with a primary infection that is as dire as AIDS, HIV or malaria, it is often a fatal disease.

Diagnosis relies on radiology which is commonly known as chest X-rays, a tuberculin skin test, blood tests, as well as microscopic examination and microbiological culture of bodily fluids. Treatment is difficult and requires long courses of multiple antibiotics. Contacts are also screened and treated if necessary. Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem in (extensively) multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis. Prevention relies on screening programs and vaccination, usually with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine. Tuberculosis has been contagious for a long period of time. The signs and symptoms usually dormant or they called it as latent period. It can stay up to 5 years, until you will experience loss of appetite, weight loss, fever, easy fatigability, night sweat and persistent coughing with or without blood. This said bacteria are treatable if caught in an early stage. But also it is deadly if left untreated. Mostly the treatment is provided by the government; the course of treatment is quiet long and has to take religiously.

Task 1

One of the healthcare policies of the World Health Organisation regarding tuberculosis is to reduce the transmission of TB in households, any information, education and communication activity for prevention and management of TB should include behaviour and social change campaigns. Such campaigns should focus on how communities and, in particular, family members of smear-positive TB patients and health service providers can minimize the exposure of non-infected individuals to those who are infectious. This will ultimately translate into healthier behaviour of the entire community in relation to prevention and management of TB.

Healthcare in the UK is mainly provided by the country’s public health provider – the National Health Service (NHS). Established in 1948, the NHS was the first state organisation in the world to provide free healthcare. Today, it is the largest health service in the world providing services such as hospitals, General Practitioners (GPs/doctors), specialists, dentists, chemists, opticians and the ambulance service. The majority of these are free to those who are entitled (see below), but patients pay fixed fees for prescriptions, sight tests, NHS glasses and dental treatment, unless they are exempt for a particular reason.

The state system is supported by private health providers. These offer the opportunity to receive treatment more quickly, always see an expert specialist and be seen in clean and comfortable surroundings. The private health providers are not paid for by the state but through private health insurance or personally.

Those entitled to free or subsidised treatment on the NHS include:

Anyone with the right to live in the UK and who currently resides there (excluding British citizens who are resident abroad)

Anyone who has been resident in the UK for the previous year

EU Nationals

Anyone with a British work permit

Students on courses longer than six months

In addition, nationals from countries with reciprocal health agreements can also get treatment on the NHS, although this is usually limited to emergencies. (A full list of these countries can be found on the NHS website – www.nhs.uk).

The number of patients using the NHS is huge. On average, it deals with one million patients every 36 hours and each GP sees an average of 140 patients a week. The NHS struggles to cope with these numbers and it is not uncommon to have to wait several months to see a specialist. As a result, many people opt to pay for private health insurance (or have it provided by their employer) to avoid long waiting times for appointments and treatments.

In the UK life expectancy has been rising and infant mortality has been falling since the NHS was established. Both figures compare favourably with other nations.

On the other hand, in USA they have these kinds of free medical services to those who are less fortunate. Medicaid is a highly specific, means-tested health coverage/insurance program. It covers those who are (primarily financially) unable to acquire health coverage. It covers low-income individuals, including children, pregnant women, parents of eligible children, and people with disabilities. Medicaid was created to help low-income individuals who fall into one of these eligibility categories pay for some or all of their medical bills. Medicaid helps eligible individuals who have little or no medical insurance. And for those who are able to pay their insurance they have Medicare which covers wide scope of individual in Unites States. These Medicaid and Medicare are both run by the government. So the government is the one deciding which one is beneficial to their people but they both get a better treatment in terms of healthcare.

As I have discussed TB as my example in healthcare issues again, tuberculosis is an infectious disease. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the most common tuberculosis-causing pathogen in humans. Tuberculosis impacts society greatly by hindering economic growth in developing countries. Along with AIDS and malaria, tuberculosis is considered one of the three diseases of poverty. Tuberculosis can be extremely isolating for those infected with the disease. During the beginning stages of being a carrier of the active germs, you are required by medical professionals to stay physically isolated for a two-week period while receiving treatment that results in no longer being contagious. For those who are not treated in a timely manner but are aware that they are infected, this isolation may be extended for an inordinate amount of time. This isolation process has created an impact to the society, they become stereotyped that once you are isolated due to the said TB you are contagious for the whole course of treatment. That is why health education in the community, media information and also by giving leaflets are very helpful way to lessen the emotional burden of the victim or the patient.

In the recent study, in Asia India has the highest percentage incident of TB. In a study conducted by the Department of Community Medicine at Maulana Azad Medical College in New Delhi, India, it was shown that tuberculosis patients rated their quality of life as significantly lower than those test cases of non-infected patients. Women, in particular, felt that the effects of being a carrier of the disease were devastating to their romantic lives as well as their abilities to parent their children due to fears of infecting them.

The social determinates of tuberculosis are very clear. Poverty is one of the biggest problems and housing. The impact on women is quite serious because they are at the bottom of everything whether it comes to health services or economic empowerment and whether it is access to food and nutrition. Women are really in the bottom strata of the society, and, coupled with that is the effect of gender discrimination against women. There is no equal opportunity, so it affects a lot of women. Access to health is a big problem for women.

So, tuberculosis is complicated by all of these things and while, yes, it does affect everyone in the society, women tend to suffer a lot more just because their access to healthcare is so low, and it is so difficult for them. In fact, the health-seeking behaviour of women is very poor in the communities, and part of the empowerment process is to help them put their health first and to make them understand that their own health is important. They must begin to put their own health first rather than putting their family first and neglecting their own health. Since the cultural aspect in India are very strong that woman has to take care of the family while the father is the main bread winner; that is why most women tends to ignore their health problem even they were suffering from the said disease. And also one of their cultures is having extended family. In one small house maybe 2-3 families are living together, so the mode of transmission of TB is very evident and that is why increasing number of incident in the said country.

According to the study of British Thoracic Society; in London the cases of tuberculosis have been increasing since year 2000 – 2008 to 37% – 45% roughly estimated. Over 40% of TB Cases are Indian but not born here in London. 65% of new cases are aged 15-44yrs old. And it is common in male which is 55% and female 45%.

Other issues of service user (TB Patient in London) had been determine and it become barrier to the provision of healthcare namely:

GPs slow to recognise and act on symptoms

Non TB staff lack empathy / understanding

TB clinics a source of emotional and social support as well as health care

Advocacy services lacking

Psychological impact on being “isolation inpatient”

Geographic barriers

rural and inner-city health professional shortage areas

Cultural barriers

health beliefs and behaviors, practitioner beliefs and behaviors

Socioeconomic barriers

lack of health insurance, inability to pay out of pocket, poor education

Organizational barriers lack of interpreters, long appointment wait times, referral between hospital departments is troublesome

Combinations of these barriers may occur at the same time

According to the survey, 43% of BTS (British Thoracic Society) respondents gave the Department of Health in England a rating of poor or very poor in the priority they give to TB. The 2007 BTS survey saw 71% poor or very poor so this is a marked improvement. This reflects the increased priority the Department of Health has given TB, with much service improvement attributable to Department of Health funded projects such as Restructuring TB Services ‐ the multidisciplinary team project undertaken by BTS. Since it has given a priority in the year 2008, the incidents of TB are stable. But across England, the number of cases of the illness appears to be on the increase. According to the Health Protection Agency the number of people infected by the illness per year has gone up from 8,496 to 8,679. People who had been affected by the said disease are not the local once but people coming from outside the country like the migrants from Africa and Asia.

In the recent issue in Afghanistan, they begun to work on a $30 million hospital for the treatment of tuberculosis[TB], a disease that health officials say kills more than 10,000 Afghans every year,” VOA’s “Breaking News” blog reports. “The Japanese government is paying for the 80-bed center in the Afghan capital, which will also treat malaria and AIDS patients,” the news service writes, noting, “Japan is the second-largest donor to Afghanistan, after the United States.” VOA adds, “During Thursday’s groundbreaking in Kabul, Afghan Health Minister Suraya Dalil said Afghanistan ranks in the top 20 worldwide for the most TB patients,” and she noted the country has 2,000 centers nationwide that can diagnose and treat the disease. So in this, other first world countries like Japan are helping them to lessen or eventually eradicate the incident of TB and other deadly diseases.

According to the World Health Organisation, tuberculosis is a continuing public problem in developed and developing countries. Due to this, the World Health Organisation had come out with the plan of implementing the DOT or the Direct Observe therapy which started in 2006 and the result were remarkable that is why up to the present they are still using the said method of treatment in tuberculosis. One thing more is the implementation of screening test (chest X-ray) to all migrants who will enter to the specific country like in United Kingdom. They have policy that all migrants who will stay in the country for more than 6 months should have chest X-ray done and have valid reading result. They can bring their result from their own country but if they cannot produce the result in the immigration area, chest X-ray should be done before letting them inn in the country.

TASK 2

First let me define what “Public Health” is? It is the approach to medicine that is concerned with the health of the community as a whole. Public health is community health. And it has been said that it is vital to all of us at all times. Public health professionals are the one monitoring and diagnosing the health concerns of entire communities and promote healthy practices and behaviours to assure our populations stay healthy.

I have read an article about the campaign regarding tuberculosis world wide. It was held last March 2012 the 2012 World TB Day campaign will allow people all over the world to make an individual call to stop TB in their lifetimes. The Department of Health strategy for tackling TB is to help the NHS strengthen TB services in order to detect cases of TB early, and ensure completion of treatment. In addition to developing the TB Action Plan for England has: developed a set of resources, the “TB Toolkit”, on what constitutes a good TB service with advice on how to assess local needs and commission appropriate services in line with National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) clinical guideline. The Toolkit has been presented to Primary Care Trust (PCT) commissioners and their local service providers/public health teams via a series of regional workshops. Provided funding for the BTS (British Thoracic Society) to establish a national clinical advice network, with a multi-disciplinary make-up, offering peer support and best practice advice for the management of TB cases; implemented improvements to the current Health Protection Agency (HPA) surveillance system to enable local services to have rapid, timely and accurate information, allowing them to monitor TB cases and outcomes in their locality; funded an evaluation of the use of mobile X-ray screening in London as a tool for active case-finding. Provided funding for a TB ‘Find & Treat’ programme to support TB services in London in following-up suspected cases of TB, and diagnosed cases who have been ‘lost to follow-up’; introduced X-ray screening equipment in a number of key prisons in order to improve detection of cases among prisoners; Commissioned research on awareness of, and knowledge about, TB among certain migrant groups at higher risk of TB, and among primary care professionals. This forms the basis of further work to raise awareness of TB. For example, the DH is funding TB Alert to develop materials to raise awareness among higher risk groups, and work closely with PCTs to target these materials locally; reduced the cost of TB drugs to patients who would normally pay a prescription charge. A small amendment to the medicines charging regulations allows TB drugs to be given via TB clinics or patient group direction without a prescription charge being levied; held an expert meeting to review the TB Action Plan in England in order to identify gaps and priorities for further action.

On the other hand, tuberculosis impacts society greatly by hindering economic growth in developed and developing countries. The WHO estimates that globally tuberculosis causes $12 billion annual economic loss. Mycobacterium tuberculosis contaminates about one-third of the entire Earth’s society. It is also one of the most averaged single death affecting factors in adolescents.

It is about two point five percent of all the diseases in the world combined, there are huge consequences globally because of tuberculosis approximately two billion people in the world are infected. It is the seventh most death causing disease worldwide. About seventy-five percent of people fifteen years old to fifty-four are afflicted with this disease. In places like South East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa the rates of death caused by tuberculosis can range from ninety-five and ninety-nine percent. There are some productive drugs that sparingly helps prevent tuberculosis, for about 50 years there has been a statistics saying that every 15 seconds, one person dies due to tuberculosis. People say that this statistic is supposed to remain until the year 2020. One person with tuberculosis usually contaminates about ten to fifteen people every year.

It usually takes 1.6 billion US dollars to budget for tuberculosis control for just one severely affected country. Tuberculosis is a huge epidemic in Yemen. The majority of patients in Yemen that are contaminated by tuberculosis between the range of fifteen years old to fifty-four years old, seventy-two percent of that majority of the patients have pulmonary tuberculosis and twenty-eight percent of them have extra-pulmonary. Tuberculosis is transmitted very easily, when a person coughs they discharge a droplet nuclei which holds about ten bacilli. They are then transported by air currents, once they are breathed in they are anchored in the upper respiratory tract. Because the droplets are very small it is easier for them to stay in the air for a long amount of time. The risk of being contaminated with tuberculosis is very high in poor ventilated ares and crowded places.

There are many ways one can be infected by tuberculosis. An exposed victim will have a hundred percent chance of getting tuberculosis if they are in a very small, enclosed place with the infectious person. Poor ventilation can increase the risk because ventilation is used to remove the contagious droplet nuclei. The amount of time that you are exposed is another key factor. If the individual is exposed and is very susceptible that individual will be contaminated. There are many treatments for tuberculosis, one of them is a drug called Isoniazid it is widely used and it is for prevent tuberculosis. Another one is Rifampicin, it is very effective is non toxic. There are many others like Pyrazinamide, Thioacetazone, Streptomycin, and Ethambutol.

In Yemen, there were no studies or research conducted for a treatment for tuberculosis. But there have been many advances around the world in the past one hundred years, like in 1885 Cantan discovers nonpathogenic bacteria that reduce the amount of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In 1944 the worlds first single anti-tuberculosis drug. Many scientists in Europe have worked hard to find a cure for Tuberculosis and in 1946 they succeeded in creating an acid that resist the bacteria, it is called PAS which stands for para-aminosalycilic acid. Soon after that they started to discover a lot more new drugs to treat tuberculosis; isoniazed was discovered in 1951, in 1954 pyrazinamide was discovered, cycloserine was discovered in 1955, ethambutol in 1962, and rifampicin was discovered in 1963. All of these have helped the spread of tuberculosis significantly lessen.

Even though many anti-tuberculosis drugs exist around the world, tuberculosis is still and epidemic in some countries because of the low economy some of the countries have. Since the countries that have tuberculosis as their epidemic have a low economy, this means that the country could not provide enough money to trade with other countries who have these drugs or the country could not afford money to provide research and studies for prevention of tuberculosis or for a cure. If each country with the anti-tuberculosis drugs would share their information with the other countries maybe tuberculosis can be eliminated from this world, because it affects the society of today’s world.

Conclusion:

Having discussed the issues regarding tuberculosis in national and international aspect; it was an eye opening to the community how to lessen the transmission of disease and at the same time how to get information; give solution to the problem. By identifying the barriers in the issue of tuberculosis such as; GPs slow to recognise and act on symptoms; non TB staff lack empathy / understanding; Psychological impact on being “isolation inpatient”; rural and inner-city health professional shortage areas; long appointment wait times, referral between hospital departments is troublesome. And another thing is the cultural beliefs about healthcare. In these barriers, the NHS is trying their best to intervene and look for a possible and healthy solution.

Further more, the link between tuberculosis and diminished growth suggests that there is a role for health programmes such as DOTS in improving not only the health of those living in the developing world, but also such individual’s wealth. Any policy would need to take into account the problems involved in scaling-up treatments in countries with limited healthcare staff and health infrastructure. Both sets of guidelines appear to support a dedicated programme to treat tuberculosis using community based methods such as those of DOTS, which do not require long periods of hospitalisation or high-level infrastructure.

References:

Future Impact of Tuberculosis | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/facts_6216508_future-impact-tuberculosis.html#ixzz1vVOEcyBC


TB’s Impact on Women

http://www.livestrong.com/article/202018-impacts-of-tuberculosis/#ixzz1vVNlcgOL

www.news-medical.net/health/What-is-Tuberculosis.aspx

Controlling TB in London, London TB Services and Review

www.ucl.ac.uk/infection-immunity/research/res…/tb…/j_hayward

Barrier to Healthcare

www.amsa.org/programs/barriers/barriers.html

Tuberculosis in UK. What is being done?

www.bma.org.uk/health…ethics/…/Tuberculosiswhatisbeingdone.jsp

The Impact of Tuberculosis on Economic Growth – HEC Montréal

neumann.hec.ca/neudc2004/fp/grimard_franque_aout_27.pdf

Future Impact of Tuberculosis | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/facts_6216508_future-impact-tuberculosis.html#ixzz28nhrmlUx

Explain how the performance measures may change if the unit of analysis is the organization as a whole, and not the specific operating unit.

Explain how the performance measures may change if the unit of analysis is the organization as a whole, and not the specific operating unit.

I WOULD LIKE IT TO BE FOR DCH REGIONAL MEDICAL CENTER OR UAB HOSPITAL IN ALABAMA.

I would like it to be for DCH Regional Medical Center or UAB Hospital in Alabama.
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Assignment 3: Performance Measures
In healthcare the terms “balanced scorecard” and “dashboard” are used to describe performance measurement tools that are both broad in scope and yet summarized in a few key indicators. In this assignment you will create a specific dashboard for an operating unit of a healthcare organization.
Select and describe a specific healthcare operating unit. Examples are an emergency department, surgical service, specific nursing unit, or physician’s office practice. Select a type of healthcare service you are familiar with.

Locate at least three recent (within the past 4 years) journal articles from professional and peer reviewed journals that discuss dashboard, balanced scorecard, or performance measurement. Write a brief review of the articles and give complete citations.

Based on the literature review and your knowledge of the unit, create four categories of measurement. They must include both clinical and financial categories. Describe the categories and write a justification for each.

For each category, create at least three specific performance measures. For each measure, describe how it is calculated and where the data is found.

Explain how the performance measures may change if the unit of analysis is the organization as a whole, and not the specific operating unit.

Present all your work in a 5-page report. Format the report in APA style.
Name your document as: LastnameFirstInitial_W2_A3.doc.For example, if your name is John Smith, your report will be named SmithJ_W2_A3.doc.
By Saturday, October 19, 2013, submit the report to the W2: Assignment 3 Dropbox.
Grading Criteria Maximum Points Described selected healthcare operating unit. 4 Reviewed three journal articles about specified topics. 8 Designed, described, and justified four categories of measurements. 12 Designed three performance measurements for each category, and described calculation and identified sources of data for each. 24 Estimated change in…

Controversies in ECMO


Parag Gharde, Sandeep Chauhan

Controversy is defined as

“Public debate about a matter which arouses conflicting opinion.”

(Oxford English Dictionary)


ECMO or ECLS-

To start with there is controversy regarding the name itself. There are two abbreviations that we commonly come across in literature –

ECMO- extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

ECLS- extracorporeal life support

This support system is used in different clinical settings where the reversible organ dysfunction has affected the lung, the heart or both. When lung rest is needed the veno-venous ECMO system is used and for providing cardiac rest veno-arterial system is used. The term extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) came into being when Dr. J. Donald Hill first used it successfully in a road traffic accident victim who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome after multiple blood transfusions. Since lung rest and oxygenation was the main therapeutic requirement, the life support system was named ECMO. But since this support system is now often being used in patients requiring cardiac support where the native lung is functioning well, the term ECMO is not suitable and hence the term ECLS is now in common use in clinical practice. The ECMO society itself is named as “Extracorporeal Life Support Organization-ELSO”. Therefore the reader should not get confused when they come across the terms- ECMO and ECLS, both meaning the same but to the author the term ECLS appears to be more appropriate as it can be used interchangeably whether support is required for the lung, the heart or for both. The use of the term ECMO is justified only if it is being used to support pulmonary function with the aim of giving rest to the lung.


Does ELSO work?

After the first successful use of ECLS in an adult, which was reported by Hill etal in 1972 (NEJM 1972; 26: 629-34.), the National Institute of Health sponsored a multicenter randomized study by Zapol etal in 1974, which showed 90% mortality in both ECLS and conventional care group. The anticipated enrolment for the study was 300 patients but the study was stopped after just 92 patients, as the death rates were similar in both the groups. This prospective randomized trial deflated the initial euphoria that was generated by the report of Hill etal. Was this supposed to be a certain miscarriage of a support system devised to deal with patients who are non-responders to conventional medical practice, even before seeing the light of the day? This study was conducted in adults with hypoxic respiratory failure and published in 1979. (JAMA 1979; 242:2193-2196). This first prospective multicenter randomized clinical trial demands a close scrutiny. During the study period a nation wide epidemic of influenza pneumonia broke out, which might have affected the results. Though the protocol included lung rest but the inflation pressures were high compared to the present recommendation, which may have caused lung injury. VA ECLS was used rather than VV ECLS, which may be responsible for high incidence of pulmonary micro-thrombosis due to decreased pulmonary blood flow. ECMO was instituted after a mean duration of 9 days of mechanical ventilation, which in the present era has been reduced to 7 days.

Morrios etal (Am J Respir Crit Care Med-1994;149(3);88) randomized 40 patients with sever ARDS to either pressure controlled inverse ratio ventilation or extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal. Survival at 30 days was not significantly different (42% in mechanical ventilation group and 33% in ECLS group).

After these two randomized trials, showing failure of ECLS in the adult setup had put ECLS into disrepute despite many anecdotal mini case series and isolated case reports showing the benefits were published. The much awaited CESAR trial (Efficacy and economic assessment of Conventional ventilator support versus Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for Severe Adult Respiratory failure), a multicenter randomized controlled trial by Peek etal was published in Lancet 2009. (Lancet. 2009:374:1351-1363.) 180 patients were randomized and 90 patients were managed at the participating tertiary care centers while 90 were referred to Glenfield hospital. Five patients in the ECMO referral group died during transportation and thus the ECMO group consisted of 68 patients of which 43 survived to 6 months (63%). This study showed that survival apart from appropriate time of institution of ECLS also significantly depends on the expertise of the ECLS conducting center.

There is no consensus on the optimal time for institution of ECLS. Waiting too long will result in danger of end organ dysfunction and poor outcome, while too early institution without optimizing medical therapy will expose the patient to the inherent risk of ECLS.

The success in ECLS has been with neonatal acute hypoxemic respiratory failure with survival to discharge rates reaching 80%. The success story started with Bartlett etal reporting the first successful use of ECLS in a neonate in 1976.


Extracorporeal carbon-dioxide removal (ECCO



2



R)

A membrane lung is used to remove carbon dioxide in conditions of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A low flow is required and is perfused by femoral artery-venous shunt. Low blood flow is not adequate for performing oxygenation. Morris etal conducted a randomized control trial using this device to eliminate CO

2

. This trial showed no difference between ECCO

2

R and the conventional treatment and the study was stopped after enrolling 40 patients only. The ECCO

2

R arm used low flow in a group of patients with severe lung disease, which warranted higher ECMO flows. Before starting the trial, the trial team had limited experience on sheep and one patient.(Am J Respir Crit Care Med,1994:149; 295-305.)

Effective CO

2

clearance is achieved with blood flow as little as 10-15ml/kg/min, while oxygenation requires at least 50-60 ml/kg/min of blood flow. Nova lung (Germany) produces a membrane lung, which can be perfused using femoral arterio-venous shunt, enough blood flow for CO

2

removal.


ECLS Vs Ventricular assist device (VAD)

Patients with failing heart and waiting for heart transplant need a bridge to transplant till the time a donor heart is available. If these patients develop acute exacerbation of cardiac dysfunction, which route should be chosen- ECLS or VAD? There are no guidelines regarding this situation. The main advantage ECLS holds over VAD is in patients with bi-ventricular dysfunction, which will require a bi-VAD. VA-ECLS on other hand can support both the ventricles along with respiratory failure and refractory pulmonary artery hypertension. The only limitation is the duration of support, which at most is 4-6 weeks.


Cardiac ECLS

The controversy is regarding patient selection. Though ECLS guideline clearly defines presence of a reversible condition before institution of ECLS, there are situation when it’s difficult to predict if the condition is reversible and most often the decision is surgeon dependent who may have a biased opinion regarding the true indication for instituting ECLS. This usually results in financial burden, resource and manpower wastage, bad outcome, lowers the moral of the team and loss of faith in the support system (ECLS).

When is the ideal time to institute ECLS in cardiac surgical patient? Is it ideal to institute ECLS directly from CPB or to initiate it later in the intensive care unit after giving a trial? It has been shown that survival benefits were more in patients who went on ECLS directly from CPB thus avoiding the ill effects of prolonged low cardiac output state or subsequent to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in the intensive care unit.


Antegarde or retrograde ECLS

Retrograde ECLS via femoral artery cannulation especially for cardiac support in a failing left ventricle is not a good option. The failing heart with this form of support has to compete with retrograde ECLS flow from the femoral artery cannula. This causes increase in LV wall stress and may even result in mitral regurgitation both of which increase left atrial (LA) pressure, thus affecting gas exchange due to pulmonary congestion. This may impair oxygenation and delivery of inadequately oxygenated blood to coronary and cerebral artery circulation will further worsen cardiac function and delay recovery. Therefore central ECLS with aortic cannulation has some advantage over peripheral ECLS, especially in case of cardiac support. But central ECLS takes time to initiate and is ideal in post cardiac surgery setup. In an emergency situation peripheral ECLS is easy to institute. Serial echocardiography needs to be done to rule out LA distention. If LA distention is present then placement of an LA vent is necessary via percutaneous atrial septostomy. Some prefer retrograde ECLS because of the fact that 10-15% patients suffer from stroke when carotid artery was used for arterial cannulation in profound hypotension or arrest. Neck vessels are used in children up to 5-6 years and femoral access in older patients. Limb ischemia is common with femoral artery cannulation and may require additional distal limb perfusion. Is axillary artery cannulation a better option? This can provide sufficiently oxygenated blood to the upper body, which is lacking with retrograde flow. The issue of limb ischemia is also addressed. The decreased pulmonary blood flow in full support VA ECLS may increase the risk of thrombus formation, in the pulmonary circulation, because of lower levels of anticoagulation.


Does the type of oxygenator influence outcome?

In vitro studies reported problems with Biomedicus (Medtronic, USA) pump heads. Thiara etal demonstrated improved circuit durability and reduced hemolysis when changing from Biomedicus (Minimax oxygenator) circuit to a Rotaflow (Lilliput 2 oxygenator), but failed to demonstrate survival improvement. (Perfusion, 2007;22:323-26). The earlier oxygenators were spiral wound silicone membrane oxygenator (Affinity, Avecor Cardiovascular Inc, USA), and the recent multiple hollow fibers <0.5 mm diameter are coated with polymethyl pentene which allows gas diffusion but not liquid. (Quadrox

D-

Maquet, Jostra, Germany). It causes less platelet and plasma protein consumption, more effective gas exchange; offers lower resistance to blood flows and has smaller priming volume. Due to its less resistance to blood flow it is suitable to be used with centrifugal pump (Rotaflow- Maquet, Jostra, Germany). Siarajan etal (Interact CardioVasc Thorac Surg, 2010; 11 (4): 400-405.) have shown that with improvements in technology (centrifugal pump, hollow fiber oxygenators) there has been an improved outcome in pediatric extracorporeal support. But the study was a retrospective one.


When to start?

The guidelines are clear for institution of ECLS in respiratory failure patients, based on oxygenation index. But there are no such common guidelines for patients with low cardiac output states. Do we wait till we add all the inotropes in our arsenal? Waiting too long increases the risk of end organ damage. There is lack of consensus and thus every institution follows their own protocol. Rising lactate levels, falling mixed venous O2 saturation, wide core-peripheral temperature gap and poor urine output are signs of inadequate O2 delivery. Some consider mechanical support when no improvement is seen in signs of low cardiac output at epinephrine dose of 0.3μg/kg/min. fluid responsiveness should be seen, as these patients may be fluid responsive, in which case mechanical support will be useless.


When to stop

?

There is lack of information on the time for lung recovery in case of acute lung injury or ARDS. Therefore it is difficult to set a time limit to continue with ECLS support. In case of cardiac stunning, myocardial function generally improves within 72-96 hours, while myocarditis may require 10-14 days for the ventricle to recover. But there are no guidelines to define how long is long enough? The end comes with complications like bleeding, infection or multi-organ dysfunction, but do we need to stretch this far or its just about running the pump? The answer is not simple, it’s ethical and financial as well, but we shouldn’t forget that the body also deserves respect.


Anticoagulation-

Universally, unfractionated heparin (UFH) has been used to maintain activated clotting time in range of 160-200 seconds. The incidence of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is 10-15% in ECLS. Bleeding and thromboembolic events during ECLS are one of the major causes of mortality. Ranucci etal (Crit Care 2011;15, R275) have shifted from conventional heparin based protocol to bivalirudin based protocol after two of their cases developed HIT during ECLS and were successfully treated with stopping of heparin and starting bivalirudin infusion. The study had two arms- bivalirudin group and UFH group. The study found significantly lower bleeding in the bivalirudin group with significantly increased use of platelet concentrate and purified anti-thrombin in the UFH group. Bivalirudin unlike heparin is a direct thrombin inhibitor and therefore does not require anti-thrombin for its activity. It has a short half-life of 25 minutes. Does this study from Ranucci etal warrant a paradigm shift in the way we practice anticoagulation for the conduct of ECLS? At present what best we can take from this study is that in patients with heparin resistance and HIT, or with excessive post operative bleeding on ECMO, bivalirudin can be a savior. More experience is required with this drug before we take a step towards change. Also bivalirudin is costly, lacks an antidote and is difficult to monitor with the standard ACT machine.


Bleeding-

In a patient on ECLS who is bleeding the guidelines suggests of blood transfusion along with component therapy (platelet concentrate, fresh frozen plasma, cryo precipitate). Coagulation monitoring with instruments like Sono-clot, thromboelastography gives us the insight into coagulation factor deficiency so that we can tailor our transfusion to meet the deficiency. The guideline also suggests temporarily withholding anticoagulation in patients with severe hemorrhage. But the lowest effective level of anticoagulation is not known. There are case reports of safe ECLS support for several days without any systemic anticoagulation. But one needs to be careful during periods of low flow ECLS (<2 L/min).

Can recombinant FVIIa be used in patients on ECLS who are bleeding? Again there are no guidelines on this and there have been few case reports of its use in ECLS showing both positive and negative results.


Extracorporeal support during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (E-CPR)

This is a new evolving dimension of ECLS. In emergency settings it’s often impossible to assess patient’s neurological status and predict the reversibility of the clinical picture. How can we select patients who will benefit- it’s a difficult call. Since E-CPR is a new extension of ECLS there are no large studies to look at for guidance and implementation. It is still in its infancy. The survival to discharge rate for in-hospital cardiac arrest is 10-15%. ECPR in witnessed arrest showed early return of spontaneous rhythm in the E-CPR group due to active decompression of the heart by ECLS and oxygen supply to the myocardium. The American Heart Association guidelines for CPR recommend consideration for ECLS to aid cardiopulmonary resuscitation in patients with refractory cardiac arrest (persistence of circulatory arrest despite more than 30 minutes of appropriate CPR), who have an easily reversible event and have had an excellent CPR. These guidelines are for witnessed in- hospital cardiac arrest. There are no guidelines for out of hospital cardiac arrest. Guen etal (Crit. Care 2011; 15: R29) in their study used ECLS on 51 patients of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. 90% (n-46) died within 48 hours. At present in a developing country like India where health resources, health infrastructure and well-trained paramedics are limited E-CPR appears to be a distant reality, especially in the out-of-hospital cardiac arrest scenario.



Suggested reading


  1. Gray BW, Shaffer AW, Mychaliska GB.


    Advances in neonatalextracorporealsupport: the role ofextracorporeal membrane oxygenationand the artificial placenta.

    Clin Perinatol

    . 2012; 39(2):311-29.

  2. Chai PJ, Jacobs JP, Dalton HJ, Costello JM, Cooper DS, Kirsch R, Rosenthal T, Graziano JN, Quintessenza JA.


    Extracorporealcardiopulmonary resuscitation for post-operative cardiac arrest: indications, techniques,controversies, and early results–what is known (and unknown).

    Cardiol Young

    . 2011; 21 Suppl 2:109-17.

  3. Stulak JM, Dearani JA, Burkhart HM, Barnes RD, Scott PD, Schears GJ.


    ECMOcannulationcontroversiesand complications.

    Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth

    . 2009;13(3):176-82

  4. Ford JW.


    NeonatalECMO: Currentcontroversiesand trends.

    Neonatal Netw

    . 2006;25(4):229-38.

Discuss the Correlation Between Family and Domestic Violence

Discuss the Correlation Between Family and Domestic Violence

Discuss the correlation between family and domestic violence and the impacts this has on mental health, focusing on the nursing considerations, assessments and recognition.
Discuss the correlation between family and domestic violence and the impacts this has on mental health, focusing on the nursing considerations, assessments and

recognition.

Order Description

read through all of the guidelines provided before starting the writing.

Discuss the correlation between family and domestic violence and the impacts this has on mental health, focusing on the nursing considerations, assessments and

recognition.

The discussion is to be supported with relevant and credible references. There are to be a minimum of ten references at least two (4) being researched based journal

articles. No Wikipedia and only two (2) web based sites. SHOULD BE GOV.AU, All refrences should be Australian not less then 2005 .
Required text book :
Hungerford, C.,Hodgson, D., Clancy, R., Monisse-Redman, M., Bostwick, R., & Jones, T. (2015). Mental Health Care – An Introduction for Health Professionals in

Australia (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd. (Available as an ebook)
Recommended References:

Caltabiano, M., Byrne, D., & Sarafino, E. (2008). Health psychology: Biopsychosocial interactions. An Australian perspective. Brisbane: Wiley & Sons Australia

Eckermann, A-K., Dowd, T., Chong, E., Nixon, L., Gray, R., & Johnson, S. (2010). Binan goonj: Bridging cultures in Aboriginal health (3nd ed.). Chatswood, NSW:

Elsevier.

Edwards, K-L., Munro, I., Welch, A. & Robins, A. (2014) Mental Health Nursing: Dimensions of Praxis. (2nd ed) South Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Elder, R., Evans, K., & Nizette, D. (2013). Psychiatric and mental health nursing (3nd ed.). Chatswood, NSW: Elsevier Australia.

Evans, J., & Brown, P. (2012). Videbeck’s Mental Health Nursing. Sydney: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

MARKING CITERIA

Focus & Introduction 8%

There is a clear introduction that outlines the topic, and contextualises and profiles the scope, content and the sequence of the essay topic.

Content, Evidence & Examples 30%

The content is relevant to the topic. Student has highlighted in detail all the relevant significant factors; explained and analysed the concepts and or issues and

their importance.
Referred to relevant theory and literature to support their reasoning and examples are presented.

Critical Thinking & Reasoning 25%
There is evidence of both depth and breadth of reading. An argument is presented and well supported with evidence.
Emphasised the importance of consumer/carer perspectives throughout the discussion.

Closing paragraph
8%
There is a concluding paragraph which restates the topic, provides a summary of all of the key points, and presents an overall conclusion.

Sequencing & Accuracy 3%

The content in the essay matches the outline presented in the introductory paragraph. Most paragraphs are organised in a logical manner so that content flows from one

paragraph to the next, and there are clear linking sentences that link each paragraph to the next. The essay ends with a rational conclusion.

Sources & Referencing 3%
Credible and relevant references are used. Accurate use of APA referencing style on most occasions.
Accurate use of in-text citations. Uses between 18 – 20 referenc

Sentence Structure, Grammar, Spelling & Punctuation 3%
There are no errors with grammar, spelling and punctuation that impact readability, and the meaning is easily discernible

Choose an infectious disease that is currently a human health risk. Write a 350- to 525-word blog entry on the disease. Choose an infectious disease that is currently a human health risk.

Choose an infectious disease that is currently a human health risk. Write a 350- to 525-word blog entry on the disease.
Choose an infectious disease that is currently a human health risk.

Research your topic using online sources such as the NIH, CDC, and WHO.

Write a 350- to 525-word blog entry on the disease. You are getting the word out to your chosen audience. Answer the following questions:

Describe the cause and symptoms of the disease.
Which populations are most susceptible to infection? How is the disease transmitted?
Is there a vaccine or treatment available for the disease?
Is the disease new or has it occurred in the past?
Does the disease present a significant problem for the human population globally, or is it localized?

Sociological Concepts of Stigma and Health Impacts

This essay is going to discuss the sociological idea of stigma and its effect on an individual, furthermore this essay will also define other concepts in relation to stigma such as the ‘Hidden Distress Model’. We will also discuss examples of this health illness in order to demonstrate the impact of stigmatization and their ‘Coping Strategies’. Moreover this essay will study how different individuals within society react to people with mental disabilities and other health illness for instance HIV and AIDS and how some individual in society find stigma more fearful than the condition they have been diagnosed in, for example a person who has been in a socially stigmatizing condition may feel discriminated and isolation and pain due to their illness.

To address the issue of stigmatization, firstly it’s important to clarify whether or not there is a link between social integration and health. A study carried out by Berkman and Syme (1979) states the extent of individual’s integration within society has a significant effect on their health. In their research they identified two forms of ‘network scores’. They established that those with ‘low network scores’ had a higher mortality rate compared to those that had high ‘network scores’ (Nettleton 2006).

Stigma refers to a negatively well-defined condition, attribute, trait or behaviour conferring a deviant status which is socially, culturally or historically not the same. (Gabe

et al,

2004). The word stigma was defined by the Greeks, they used the term to refer to the bodily signs a person had this could be cuts or burns. They intended the term to those whom they believed to be socially outsiders such as slaves or criminals, mainly those who were unhygienic or diseased would be avoided by people. (Gabe

et al,

2004)

Goffman (1963) refers stigma as the difference between the virtual social identity, which is the stereotyped made in everyday life and the real social identity and stigma is the relationship between characteristics and stereotype. This two concepts – ‘Virtual Social Identity’ which is the stereotypes attributes we think we attain and ‘Actual Social Identity’ relates to the attributes an individual actually has.

We will pay particular attention to Actual Social Identity, this concept is when a person actually possess the signs of a stigma. Goffman says that ‘stigma is a special kind of relationship between attribute and stereotype’, and therefore people get stigmatized for the reason that their illness is obvious, for instance if a patient is deaf, blind or unable to walk therefore in a wheelchair or uses a hearing aid, in society they are seen as being abnormal because they don’t have the abilities of a normal person and for that reason they are socially undesirable or inferior also Goffman (1963) states ‘people with such ‘abnormalities’ are said to be stigmatized’ (Armstrong, 2003, p.42) . Although some illnesses can be obvious others can be relatively concealed, however they can still feel and ‘experience ‘felt stigma’ because they still see’ themselves to be inferior and they feel they are hiding a discreditable part of their personality from the outside world’ (Scamber and Hopkins, 1986, cited in Armstrong, 2003, p.42).

In today’s society the term stigma is used to refer to an individual who is culturally unacceptable with any condition, characteristic or behaviour (Gabe

et al,

2004). According to Goffman (1968) his ideas added felt and enacted stigma, the former is the feeling that we are being discriminated against and the latter is actually being stigmatised through discrimination.

Goffman recognised three types of stigma that he explained as:

  1. Stigma of the body, which relates to blemishes or physical deformities;
  2. Stigma of character which relates to the mentally ill or criminals, and finally
  3. Stigma associated with social factors which can be either racial or tribal throughout different cultures. Goffman goes on to say that his types of stigma can vary differently between social, cultural or historical environments (Goffman 1963, cited in Gabe

    et al.

    , 2004, p.69).

While Goffman mentioned three types of stigma, Scambler mentioned two types of stigma. He combined his ideas in what he calls the ‘Hidden Distress Model’ which had been developed to explain the way in which an individual overcomes felt stigma in order to prevent experiences that play part of stigma. This, Scambler described it to be carried out by ‘Non-Disclosure’ which focuses attention on the fact that individuals would want to keep their condition from others in a hope to hide any information about their health condition and only will ever reveal their condition if it is necessary to do so. (Scambler, 2008).

The approach of the ‘Hidden Distress Model’ explains the reasons of the concealment of a condition, it is that because of the fear of associated stigma, moreover felt stigma is very easily seen so that one can avoid the occurrence of enacted stigma. Experiencing strong felt stigma could lead to higher stress which then leads to putting the patient harder circumstances in order to control their illness, which later on makes their illness worse over time due to the energy released through the concealment of their condition.

Moreover in relation to this Scambler (2008) states

“Paradoxically, felt stigma is more disruptive of people’s lives and well-being than enacted stigma… ”

he also says that felt stigma tends to increase the anxiety levels of an individual more so that enacted stigma.

To apply these concepts in real life circumstances, we will present how the avoidance of enacted stigma through felt stigma can worsen risks of various health issues ultimately deteriorating their health condition. Research study carried out on HIV and AIDS, has shown that people with such stigma are only known to their doctors and many chose not to kept it a secret and to disclose this information because of the way society thinks of AIDS and HIV. Patient might decide to avoid routine checks or treatment in the hope that they will not experience enacted stigma from others, for instance when they are entering or exiting the sexual health clinic or attending local HIV screening tests because of the stigmatising assumptions that are related to HIV /AIDS such as being gay or heavy drug user (Lubkin and Larson, 2012). Additional example can be seen with women who is avoiding screening for the sexually transmitted disease called HIV and AIDS for the fear of other people acting unreasonably towards them because they feel that they will be judged against behaviour associated with a lot of sexual partners. (Lubkin and Larson, 2012). And because this is associated with the person fearful of being treated different or labelled. People may not always seek medical help for their stigma conditions because of their fears of being faced with enacted stigma, however Zola (1973 has looked in to the timing of when individuals may decide to seek medical help, and in he discovered that majority of the people wait and put up with their symptoms for a while before they actually choose to seek medical assistance. Research study carried out on HIV and AIDS, has shown that people with such stigma are only known to their doctors and many chose not to kept it a secret and to disclose this information because of the way society thinks of AIDS and HIV.

As mentioned above avoidance of sexual health screening can lead to worsening health problems, a person with the health illnesses mentioned above could have life threatening diseases for the individual if he or she continue to express the ideas of the hidden distress model.

There are many studies that prove that is stigma is based on social concept. This study suggests that stigma is more about social concept rather than a characteristic of an individual. Parker and Aggleton (2003) ‘point out, processes of stigmatization remain part and parcel of processes of power, domination and discrimination; what becomes stigmatized is bound up with usual norms and values. Therefore it is socialized, not an individual, concepts (Nettleton, 2006, p.96). Therefore this study says felt stigma is more powerful than any accrual episodes of enacted stigma and for that reason it makes people more stigmatized.

Moving on to the concept of ‘Coping Strategies’ has been formed to explain the ways in which an individual copes with the effects of an illness. The term ‘coping’ refers to the “

Cognitive processes whereby an individual learns to tolerate illness”

and strategy relates to the actions people take in the face of illness (Bury 1991 cited in Nettleton 2006).

The term coping is used to maintain the feeling of self-worth and a sense of belief during an illness (Gerhardt 1989 cited in Bury 1991). The thought of normalisation can be used in ‘coping’ with an illness; this can be expressed in two with in the ‘Coping Strategies’. The first is to supress any negativity related to the illness so that the person can maintain their own personal identity which they held prior to their diagnosis; the second is to look at normalisation in terms of treatment where the treatment routine should not be remote place so that the individual can integrate with other people and not be isolated (Kellecher 1988, cited in Bury 1991). Bury (1991)

This further explains that it is the values of the individual that can determine how others respond to them in regards to their illness.

The model of ‘strategy’ is the actions that are taken in order to ‘

maximise favourable outcomes

’. (Bury, 1991). Moreover how a person responds to health illness experience regarding their condition does determine the extent to which they perform their strategies, the more negative experience they have can develop greater awareness in their everyday lives so as to escape or reduce the experience of enacted stigma. The controlling of illness through the use of strategies can differ from the influence of social settings to the forms that are developed in order to deter any focus to the condition as well as achieving set goals so that they can maintain their own sense of value and their belief of what their everyday life requires.

Goffman (1963) states that the way in which an individual copes with a stigmatising condition differs depending on the actual type of condition, he has specified two terms in relation to this –

‘discredited’

and

‘discreditable’

; the first one is regarding an individual whose condition is widely known and the second refers to those whose condition is concealed. It’s described that those who have a discredited condition will find it harder to manage their stigma.

There are three different ways in which an individual can cope their own stigmatising condition the first is

‘Passing’

this is where one would try to fit in to the society as ‘normal’ usually the stigmatised individuals would constantly try to conceal their condition because they do not want anyone else to know if their illness; and for those with felt stigma are more likely to choose the passing approach for instance an individual with hard of hearing condition may decide to not use the hearing aid so that they can ‘fit in’ more with the society (Lubkin and Larson, 2012; Armstrong, 2003).

The second one is

‘Covering’

this refers to an individual with a discrediting attribute where they will try their utmost to conceal the significance of their stigmatising condition. (Goffman, 1963; Armstrong, 2003), in this situation the individual would try and take off the focus from his or her condition in order to avoid the experience of enacted stigma, the process could be amusing towards the situation which would reassure a less tense atmosphere making it to be more easy to manage (Lubkin and Larson, 2012).

Stigma is the result of a reaction expressed through the society that ultimately spoils identity of unacceptable norms that affect the stigmatised individual in a negative way. (Gabe

et al

, 2004). Nettleton (2006) states

“Stigma is not an attribute of individuals, but is rather a thoroughly social concept which is generated, sustained and reproduced in the context of social inequalities.”

Some people are stigmatised because the part of the individual that is different is considered to be self-inflicted and in the ‘normal’ people’s eyes they are less worthy of help (Lubkin and Larson, 2012)

Parsons (1951) describes illness as a deviance form the norm and he also perceives illness as capable of cracking the social structure as the sick are unable to accomplish their social role within society. It can be expected that when an individual is sick they respond on the reaction of others, while society responds depending on the nature of the illness. (Lemert, 1967) suggests that there is three stages of deviance and he identifies these as primary deviance, which is related to an actual defined of a state or behaviour, and he claims that inside the law an action that was seen to be normal can become illegal or deviant, moreover secondary deviance refers to ‘the changes in behaviour that occur as a consequence of labelling’, for instance the stress of being discriminated and stereotyped can make an individual’s behaviour change over time. And the last stage is Tertiary deviance, which is the stigmatised individual’s reaction to the stigma from others leads to master status, for example categorising and stereotyping dominate individuals behaviours.

Scambler (2008) mentions that social factors is a major factor, which has impact people’s behaviour when they faced with what they recognize and recognise to be danger to their health and well-being. Freidson (1970) draws ‘societal reaction’ (Nettleton, 2006, p.73) furthermore he argues that there is three types of legitimacy. The first legitimacy is the ‘cases where it is achievable for a person to recover from illness, so they can get treatment for their condition, in addition their access to the sick role is conditional, the second is the incurable condition and their access to the sick role must be unconditionally, due to the fact that person might not get well and the last one is the illness being stigmatized by others and access to the sick role is to be treated as illegitimate (Nettleton, 2006, p.73).

According to Reidpath (2005) ‘ the fear of being stigmatized and subjected to discrimination many case some people to avoid or delay seeking medical help’ and this is because of fear, that people with stigmatized conditions feel socially isolated and often rejected moreover they are alienated in the society. For several stigmatized individuals, in order to to feel normal or socially accepted in the society they might join a talk group to form their own communities in order to meet people with similar issues (Armstrong, 2003). Many stigmatized people use copying mechanism in order to cope with their conditions and according to Goffman (1963) ‘a person with a stigmatizing condition could pursue several copying strategies that were largely based on the salience of the stigma he or her carried.

Scamber and Hopkins (1986), cited in Scamber, 2008, p.210, they described individuals ‘fearing discrimination, tend to conceal their epilepsy each time possible Certain ways they appear as normal included covering up their illness, a person with discrediting behaviour has no opportunity to go about it as normal but can still try to reduce the signs of his or her stigma and alternative way of passing as normal is managing expectations. This will l will lead the person to withdrawing from society and their social life, in order to avoid embarrassment and shame. An example people with conditions such as epilepsy, or HIV/Aids are able to hide away their condition when out in community, from partners, family and friends but they still do end up feel some kind of felt stigma due to them hiding some parts of their characters, nevertheless the individual way of avoiding social response to their illness and this is an case of passing as normal, concealing and managing expectations. People with stigma also get labelled unpleasant names such as handicap because they are being judged on their appearance and the abnormality they lack.


Conclusion

To conclude this essay, we agree with the idea of that felt stigma being more powerful than enacted stigma because individuals are more fearful of being stigmatized then the actually illness itself. This statement showed to be true by research studies that have been carried out this these areas. In this essay we have seen that before individuals are diagnosed with illness they prefer to hide from their illness and ignore their symptoms and refuse to seek medical attention they require also individuals develop fear of their community and the society because of their health condition, likewise they fear their family, friends look and treating them differently.

We have also looked into in to some research on stigma, we recognise why people are more fearful about the health condition than the illness because in society we tend to judge and isolate individuals on how they appear to look, before we even personally know them, for instance people in a with wheelchair we label them disabled. As Scrambler and Hopkins 1989, says that people with stigmatized illnesses are essentially outcasts and this is because they are socially rejected from society, due to their signs or symptoms and we see them as inferior. Nettleton (2006) suggests that illness reminds us that the normal functioning of our minds and is important to social action and relations with others, and this an significant fact and part of the reason proves why people are more fearful about their condition because they believe that people will be looking at them differently, judging and discriminating against them before it even happens. In addition to that we think people with serious health condition sexually transmitted diseases for instance HIV and AIDS should not tell their condition to others, for their own protection because some people have strong views and opinion on these conditions and these condition are associated with having many sexual partners and unhygienic. Scheff (1966) suggests that mental illness is a product of society’s opinions and reaction to the individual’s illness, we do believe that society’s has developed ways of just labelling people with all sort of illnesses especially people who are mentally ill and they are labelled as crazy and therefore they are treated different to others and stigmatized.



References

Armstrong, D. (2003)

Outline of Sociology as Applied to Medicine

5

th

ed. London: Arnold Publishers

Berkman, L. Syme, S. (1979) Social Networks, host resistance and mortality: a nine year follow up of Alameda County Residents.

American Journal of Epidemiology

109 (2) pp. 186-204


Calnan, M. (1987) Health and illness. London: Tavistock


Bury, M. (2005) Health and illness. Cambridge : Polity Press

Bury, M, R. (1991) The Sociology of Chronic Illness: A Review of Research and Prospects’,

Sociology of Health and Illness

13 (4) pp. 451-468

Gabe, J. Bury, M. Elston, A, M. (2004) Stigma,

Key Concepts in Medical Sociology

. London: Sage Publications pp. 68-69

Goffman, E. (1963)

Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity

. New York: Simon & Schuster

Lubkin, M, I. Larson, D, P. (2012)

Chronic Illness: Impact and Intervention


Eighth Edition

. Burlington: Jones and Bartlett Learning.

Nettleton, S. (2006)

The Sociology of Health and Illness

. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Scambler, G. (2008)

Sociology as Applied to Medicine

(eds.). Elsevier Limited.

IMPACT OF THE PROBLEM, ISSUE, OR EDUCATIONAL DEFICIT ON THE WORK ENVIRONMENT, THE QUALITY OF CARE PROVIDED BY STAFF, AND PATIENT OUTCOMES.

IMPACT OF THE PROBLEM, ISSUE, OR EDUCATIONAL DEFICIT ON THE WORK ENVIRONMENT, THE QUALITY OF CARE PROVIDED BY STAFF, AND PATIENT OUTCOMES.

1.Develop a searchable question using the PICOT format. (The question is a single statement identifying the components of PICOT.)

Refer to “Developing a Question” and “Topic 1: Checklist.”

2 NRS 441v.11R.Module1_Checklist.doc 3 NRS 441v.v10.0RDeveloping a Question.docx

2.Prepare for the capstone project by listening to the audio interview, “Capstone: Planning Your Project”.

Preview and utilize the “Topic 1 Checklist.” This resource will assist you in organizing your work and will provide additional information regarding the assignment.

Consider the clinical environment in which you are currently working or have recently worked. Collaborate with a leader or educator in the clinical environment to identify a problem, issue, or educational deficit upon which to build a proposal for change.

In a paper of no more than 800 words, describe the nature of the problem, issue, or educational deficit. Include the following in your discussion:

The setting and/or context in which the problem, issue, or educational deficit can be observed.
Detailed description of the problem, issue, or educational deficit.
Impact of the problem, issue, or educational deficit on the work environment, the quality of care provided by staff, and patient outcomes.
Gravity of the problem, issue, or educational deficit and its significance to nursing.
Proposed solution to address the problem, issue, or educational deficit.
3.Locate a minimum of 15 peer-reviewed articles that describe the problem or issue and that support the proposed solution. Eight of the 15 articles must be research-based (e.g., a study which is qualitative, quantitative, descriptive, or longitudinal).

Hint: Begin your search for literature by utilizing the databases located in the GCU Library. Contact your faculty member, the librarian, or library staff for additional researching tips and key word suggestions.

Preview each of the 15 articles chosen by reading the article abstracts and summaries.

Hint: Article abstracts and summaries provide a concise description of the topic, research outcomes, and significance of findings.

Hint: Refer to “RefWorks” and “Topic 1: Checklist.”

Perform a rapid appraisal of each article by answering the following questions (one to two sentences are sufficient to answer each question):

How does each article describe the nature of the problem, issue, or deficit you have identified?
Does each article provide statistical information to demonstrate the gravity of the issue, problem, or deficit?
What are example(s) of morbidity, mortality, and rate of incidence or rate of occurrence in the general population?
Does each article support your proposed change?

DETERMINE THE ABSOLUTE SHORTEST LENGTH OF TIME IN WHICH THE TELEMEDICINE PROJECT CAN BE COMPLETED IF NONE OF THE ACTIVITIES ARE CRASHED.

DETERMINE THE ABSOLUTE SHORTEST LENGTH OF TIME IN WHICH THE TELEMEDICINE PROJECT CAN BE COMPLETED IF NONE OF THE ACTIVITIES ARE CRASHED.

Cruise International, Inc. wants to launch a new onboard telemedicine procedure and the project is time-critical. You need to provide project management assistance to Susan Petersen in CII’s Marketing Department as well as to Dr. Janelle Black at Corporate Medical Services. Comments from your meeting with Susan follow. “Hello, I’m Susan Petersen. Here’s the project I have in mind for you. We have a new telemedicine procedure ready to be introduced onboard our fleet of ships. This is part of CII’s efforts to make passengers feel more comfortable with the onboard medical care and will be featured in our next publicity blitz. It is also much needed help that we have promised the medical personnel working onboard. The procedure requires theacquisition, installation, and marketing of a new telemedicine communications system. Dr. Janelle Black is responsible for its implementation. She has given me a list of activities that need to be completed before the new system can be implemented. There are four stages:1. develop the criteria and systems2. write the simplified operating instructions for using the system3. order the hardware to support the system4. Install the system.5. Training of staffAt that time, the training of the medical personnel needs to be completed. When the equipment has been installed onboard the Friendly Seas I and the medical personnel are sufficiently trained, we will have a four week test period before launching the new system and beginning installation in all of our ships. Take a look at Activities for Telemedicine System Implementation.” “Since we are anxious for the project to be completed as soon as possible, we have the option of paying additional costs to speed up some of the activities. For example, the normal time required for the communications contractor to finalize criteria can be reduced by one week at an additional cost of $1500. Another example is that equipment could be shipped by UPS Ground and save one week. This would cost an additional $2,000. Using FedEx would save two weeks but cost an additional $4,500. The training period for the nurses can be reduced by one week if Human Resources allows the nurses to work overtime at an additional cost of $1,200. For the criteria development, $3,500 in overtime can be saved if this activity is allowed to take five weeks to complete.” Assignment Questions :1. Determine the absolute shortest length of time in which the telemedicine project can be completed if none of the activities are crashed.2.

Evaluate the specific preparation steps in the preparedness plan of a healthcare facility of your choosing.

Evaluate the specific preparation steps in the preparedness plan of a healthcare facility of your choosing.

Evaluate the specific preparation steps in the preparedness plan of a healthcare facility of your choosing. According to the Department of Health and Human Services…The…

Evaluate the specific preparation steps in the preparedness plan of a healthcare facility of your choosing. According to the Department of Health and Human Services…The post Evaluate the specific preparation steps in the preparedness plan of a healthcare facility of your choosing.

Reducing Central Line-Associated Blood Stream Infections


Literature Review: Reducing Incidences of Central Line-Associated Blood Stream Infections

A bundle is a group of interventions related to a disease process, that when executed together, produce better outcomes than when implemented individually. Numerous studies done in the developed countries have shown that proper implementation of evidence based practices grouped together as central venous catheter bundle had brought a dramatic reduction in the incidence of CLABSI. Studies in developing countries had also shown high incidence of CLABSI and reduction in CLABSI rate albeit lesser than that of developed countries.

Studies from India have a shown a higher incidence of CLABSI and poor adherence to central line catheter bundle. Morbidity and mortality due to CLABSI is considerably high despite underreporting of such events. The development and publication of guidelines often does not lead to changes in clinical behavior and guidelines are rarely if ever, integrated into bedside practice in a timely fashion. The most effective means for achieving knowledge transfer remains an unanswered question across all medical disciplines. Our study aims to determine the compliance with CVC bundle in management of patients in medicine wards and ICU at All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi and the impact of intervention in the form of periodic physician education and feedback in compliance with CVC bundle and central line catheter related complications.


Review of literature

Ever since the introduction of central venous catheters in the early 1950s, it had varied uses and later numerous studies revealed that it was associated with a varied number of complications. Although mechanical complications were common in the early years of CVC use CLABSIs quickly became recognized as a serious complication associated with their usage.


Central venous catheter

is defined as a catheter whose tip terminates in the great vessels. The great vessels are the aorta, pulmonary artery, superior vena cava,inferior vena cava, brachiocephalic veins, internal jugular veins,subclavian veins, external iliac veins, common iliac veins,femoral veins, and, in neonates, the umbilical artery/vein.


Types :

Common types of central venous catheters are Non tunneled catheters, Tunneled catheters, Implantable ports, PICC.

A peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) is peripherally placed, but is considered a central catheter because its tip terminates in the central circulation. These venous catheters can also have single, double or triple lumens although single lumens are frequently used and are for intermediate to long term therapy for blood draws or infusions.


Complications of CVC:


Mechanical complications

(4,9)include


Complication

Risk of complication at catheterization site

Internal jugular

Subclavian

Femoral
Pneumothorax <0.1 to 0.2 1.5 to 3.1 NA
Hemothorax NA 0.4 to 0.6 NA
Arterial punctures (%) 3 0.5 6.25
Malposition Low risk (into inferior vena cava,

passing through right atrium)

High risk (crossing to

ascending internal jugular vein ,contralateral subclavian

vein)

Low risk (lumbar

venous plexus)

Pneumothorax is a common complication with subclavian and IJV cannulations without the use of ultrasound. The use of real time ultrasound reduces the number of attempts and associated with a significantly lower failure rate with internal jugular vein ( Relative risk 0.14, 95% confidence interval 0.06 to 0.33).

Limited evidence also exists for sublclavian and femoral routes in this metanalysis. Thus the chances of pneumothorax will be greatly reduced.

Pneumothorax is usually apparent immediately on Chest X rays and management may vary from simple observation to ICD placement with needle drainage needed for tension pneumothorax as emergency(11). Delayed pneumothorax is also known to occur with an incidence of 0.4%, more common with subclavian and with multiple attempts(12). Bedside ultrasonography allows diagnosis of pneumothorax to be made immediately with high sensitivity by clinician but is operator dependent(13).

Misplacement of catheters occur commonly such as tip malposition or rarely such as within artery. It is common practice to assess tip position lying above carina for right sided catheters assuming pericardial reflection below carina and below carina for left sided catheters in view of acute angulation to superior venacava(14). Management varies depending on the complication such as repositioning of tip for tip malposition lying below carina or when lying with an artery, interventional radiologist or vascular surgeon opinion is sought and removed accordingly(15).

Arterial injuries are more common with femoral and internal jugular rather than subclavian approach. A systematic review of complications of central venous catheters revealed significantly more arterial punctures (3.0% vs 0.5%) and less malpositions(5.3% vs 9.3%) with jugular access(16). It leads to hematoma in approximately 40% of patients. The best way to prevent arterial injury is by ultrasound assistance during cannulation(17). Other rarer complications are local hematomas,cerebrovascular accidents mostly seen with arterial injuries via internal jugular access, arrhythmias, perforation of the vein or right atrium, chylothorax, pseudo aneurysm, AV fistulas, cardiac tamponade, guidewire loss and catheter embolisation etc. have been reported. These complications largely depend on the site of insertion and on operator experience. Such complications can be prevented by ultrasound guidance and proper techniques.

Infectious complications are most dreaded as it is associated with mortality rates upto 25% and in developing countries even up to 60% and prolong the duration of hospital stay and are largely preventable. Evidence based guidelines have been developed as the central venous catheter bundle which significantly decreases the incidence of infections as shown in below studies.CVC use in non ICU settings is associated with at least a 2 fold rise in infection rate than in ICU settings. However studies are very limited on the infection rates as well as on the preventive measures in non ICU settings.


Thrombotic complications

range from 1.2 to 3 % in subclavian veins to up to 8 to 34% in femoral cannulations. Merrer et al in a randomized control trial found significantly increased incidence of thrombotic complications(21.5% vs1.9%,p<0.001)(18).This can be avoided by judicious site selection and proper flushing techniques (9).

Every day the central venous catheters are accessed for a variety of purposes which may include frequent CVP monitoring to IV infusions. Every time the catheter is accessed it should be done in a sterile way after the port is scrubbed with antiseptics else the infection rate increases. Dressings should be changed regularly depending on the type and as indicated.


Risk factors for CLABSI :


Intrinsic factors

Extrinsic risk factors
Age – children more likely Prolonged hospitalization before CVC insertion
Underlying diseases or conditions—hematological

and immunological deficiencies, cardiovascular disease,

and gastrointestinal diseases

CVC duration, with the risk increasing with CVC dwell time
Male gender Parenteral nutrition administration
Femoral or internal jugular access site
Multilumen CVCs
Lack of maximal sterile barriers
CVC insertion in an ICU or emergency department

Heavy microbial colonization at insertion site

The semi quantitative analysis of culture of

Maki

proved to be an effective and cost effective measure for the diagnosis of central venous catheter infections(19).

The study conducted by

Pronovost et al

in US which five basic measures hand washing, using full-barrier precautions during the insertion of central venous catheters, cleaning the skin with Chlorhexidine, avoiding the femoral site if possible and removal of unnecessary catheters significantly reduced the incidence of central venous line infections and served as a landmark study in the development of central venous catheter bundle(5). The study was conducted across 103 ICUs in Michigan in US and the rates of infection per 1000 catheter days were measured at 3 monthly intervals and the mean rate of infections decreased from 7.7 to 1.4 after 18 months.

After this study numerous studies were conducted which reinforced the effectiveness of the central venous catheter bundle.

Parra et al demonstrated that even a simple educational program like 15 min lecture given to ICU personnel highlighting 10 evidence based strategies can result in a reduction in CLABSI rates. In his study CLABSI rates decreased from 4.22 to 2.94 infections per 1000 catheter days(20).


WHO

conducted the

Bacteremia zero project

(21) to assess the applicability and effectiveness of the Michigan keystone ICU project in Spanish ICUs. This multifactorial nationwide intervention project was implemented between April 2008 and June 2010, with data collected at regular intervals to evaluate the progress of the project. A total of 192 ICUs (68% of all Spanish ICUs) participated in the project. The intervention was effective in reducing the incidence of CRBSI by approximately 50%in hospitals.


Burrel et al

demonstrated the benefit of having a checklist incorporating both the clinician and patient bundle(22). During this study they found that the compliance with the checklist improved significantly and the infection rate decreased by 50% when the compliance was good.

A nationwide study was conducted in US by

Furuya et al

(23) to find out the central line bundle implementation in ICU and its impact on Bloodstream infections. They found that CL bundle is associated with lower infection rates only when compliance is high. Complying with any one of three CL Bundle elements resulted in decreased CLABSI rates of 38%. This study clearly demonstrated the compliance should be very high to show a demonstrable decrease in the central line infection rate and that on-going evaluation was necessary.

Previously it was uniformly thought that femoral line insertion were associated with a greater incidence of infections .However recent studies have shown that the difference to be insignificant. A study was conducted by

Kedar S Deshpande

(24) in New York where they found that there was no stastically significant difference in the incidence of infections between the three routes in case of major infections when catheter is inserted optimally, catheter care is performed by trained by trained intensive care unit staff although there was a higher case of infections in the femoral group(0.881/1000 catheter days subclavian, 2.0/1000 catheter days internal jugular vein, 5.96/1000 catheter days femoral catheter p=0.1338)


Blood stream infections :

NNIS (National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance system) now renamed as

NHSN

(National Healthcare Safety Network) defines blood stream infections as presence of a recognized pathogen cultured from one or more blood cultures and organism cultured from blood not related to infection at another site or presence of at least one of fever, chills and hypotension with signs and symptoms and positive results not related to infection at another site and presence of at least one of the following: Common skin contaminant (e.g.diphtheroids, bacillus species, propionibacterium species, coagulase negative staphylococci or micrococci) cultured from two or more blood samples drawn on separate occasions or Common skin contaminant cultured from at least one blood culture in a sample from a patient with an intravascular catheter or Positive antigen test on blood (e.g.,

Haemophilusinfluenzae

,

Streptococcus pneumoniae

,

Neisseria meningitidis

, or group B streptococcus)(25).


CLABSI vs CRBSI :

Further 2 distinct terminologies are used in relation to central line infections these are used interchangeably usually though they are different.

A

CLABS

I ( central line associated blood stream infections) is defined as BSI if a CVC was present at the time of or within 48 hrs before the defining blood culture was obtained. There is no requirement to identify the organism on the catheter. This definition was developed for surveillance, not for diagnosis.

In contrast, a

CRBSI

(catheter related blood stream infection) requires that the CVC be in place at the time the positive blood culture was obtained and a positive quantitative or semi quantitative culture of the same organism from the catheter or time to positivity.

The CLABSI definition is more practical than the CRBSI definition for surveillance. However, it may overestimate the true rate of CVC–related infections, as it can sometimes be difficult to determine infections related to the central line rather than remote unrecognized infections (for example, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, intra-abdominal abscess). Interobserver variability and a lack of standardization in CLABSI surveillance are other important limitations(26).

Usually the organism grown on culture is likely to be significant only when atleast 15 CFU or 10 *3 colonies are isolated of the same organism.


Catheter infection and colonization:

Catheter infection and colonization can occur by 3 routes –

  • Extra luminal from organisms migrating along the catheter surface,
  • Intraluminal through the ports or through contaminated fluids rarely,
  • Hematogenous from a source of infection elsewhere in the body.

Terminologies commonly used with regard to catheter infection and colonization are defined as follows (24)


1. Catheter infection

A. 15 CFU on catheter tip with the same bacteria and sensitivities (one different sensitivity included) in one or more blood cultures.

B. Resolution of clinical signs and symptoms of infection in 24–48 hrs after catheter removal regardless of bacterial growth either in blood or on catheter tip.

C. 15 CFU on catheter tip with local signs of infection regardless of blood culture bacterial growth.


2. Catheter colonization

A. Catheter tip with 15 CFU without growth in blood cultures and another source of infection found.

B. Catheter tip with 15 CFU and bacteria in peripheral blood cultures from another source of infection.


3. Contamination: <

15 CFU on catheter tip without bacterial growth in blood cultures or bacteria in blood cultures from another source of infection.

Till date most of the studies have emphasized in catheter related infections as proposed by NHSN but as of date due to the aggressive use of broad spectrum antibiotics culture negativity is more common. So to remove this confounding factor any fever in a patient with central line which has no proven focus of infection elsewhere and resolves within 2 days after removal of central line can be taken as CLRI. This is based on the fact that catheter infection is “cured” only with removal or a prolonged course of intravenous antibiotics; the relatively short courses of antibiotics used for ICU infections could not truly affect the catheter infection end point. However antibiotic use can result in negative cultures results even in the presence of catheter infection.

This definition was implemented in a study by

Kedar S Deshpande et al

(24)in New York where they found that the overall incidence of central line infection is low whatever the route may be and there was no stastically significant increase in infections in the femoral route provided proper strict aseptic insertion and maintenance techniques are followed. Thus the dangerous mechanical complications of pneumothorax can be avoided.


Developing countries scenario:


Rosenthal et al

(27)showed that the neonatal blood stream infections to be 5 times higher in developing countries than the developed countries. INICC conducted a surveillance study in 36 countries involving 422 ICUs and found a overall increased incidence of HAI. CLABSI rates were found to be 3 times higher when compared with USA (6.8 per 1000 CL days vs 2 per 1000 CL days). There was increased resistance to multiple gram negative organisms and MRSA was also more frequent in developing countries(28). Unadjusted crude excess mortality rate was also higher in developing countries both for CLABSI and VAP in the range of 7.3% to 15.2%

Reasons for the differences in the degree of burden of HAIs in developing countries include the following: Limited knowledge and training in basic infection prevention and control , Limited awareness of the dangers associated with HAIs , Inadequate infrastructure and limited resources, Poor adherence to routine hand hygiene, Reuse of equipment (for example, needles, gloves) , Poor environmental hygiene and overcrowding, Understaffing, Inappropriate and prolonged use of antimicrobials and invasive devices , Limited local and national policies and guidelines, Variable adherence to official regulations or legal frameworks, where they exist and Insufficient administrative support.

A quasi experimental study was conducted by Apisarnthanarak et al in Thailand where he found improved adherence to central line bundle particularly hand hygiene improved significantly after intervention from 8% to 54% and CA-BSI decreased significantly from 14 per 1000 catheter days to 1.4 per 1000 catheter days(29) .


Indian scenario:

Indian studies have shown that the incidence if central venous catheter infections are 3 to 4 times higher in our settings and that gram negative bacteria and fungi are more common in our settings compared to gram positive infections in western settings(30)(31), The Study conducted by

Pawar et al

in Escort hospital revealed that gram negative bacilli had a higher prevalence ( 71% ) as against western settings where gram positive organisms account for 70 % . They also found that the duration of catheterization, coexistent infections and increased temperature were the important predictors of CLABSI.

A study was conducted in 12 Indian ICUs by

INICC

which revealed a higher incidence in our settings and a overall poor adoption of the catheter bundle practices and the incidence gradually and progressively decreased after proper practices (6,18). Prospective surveillance in Indian ICUs yielded a central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection (CVC-BSI) rate of 7.92 per 1000 catheter-days(18). The incidence of central venous catheter infections then decreased subsequently after the adoption of proper practices. The study also revealed that proper education; performance feedback and outcome and process surveillance of CLABSI rates significantly improved infection control practices and brought a 54% decline in CLABSI incidence(6)

.


INICC

conducted a prospective before and after cohort study in eight Indian cities where they found implementation of six components of INICC simultaneously resulted in a significant reduction in CLABSI from 6.4 CLABSIs per 1000 central line days to 3.9 CLABSIs per 1000 central line days resulting in 53% CLABSI rate reduction which was highly significant(31).

Some studies had shown that empowering the nurses with the central venous bundle and to interfere if the proper practices are not followed will go a long way in the further reduction of CLABSIs. However in spite much of the reported successes in ICU population the non ICU population are still at a significant risk of infection. In developing countries empowering the nurses is still a long way to go as understaffing and proper techniques are still not adopted(15,6). Still application of inexpensive and practical infection prevention efforts, such as improved hand hygiene and removal of CVCs when they are no longer needed, can have a major impact on CLABSI rates.

IHI central venous catheter bundle was implemented as a project in 5 million lives campaign(32). Essential features are


Hand Hygiene

:

The cornerstone of WHO’s “

Clean Care Is Safer Care

” campaign, the “

My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene

” approach, has resulted in the development of resources, including localized country-specific tools, to facilitate adherence to hand hygiene guidelines(33).

To minimize the risk of CLABSI associated with direct contact of the hands of health care personnel, the 2011 USCDC guideline recommends that hand hygiene be performed at the following times: before and after palpating the site of catheter insertion, before and after inserting the catheter, before and after accessing, replacing, repairing, or dressing the catheter. In addition, after the antiseptic has been applied to the site, further palpation of the insertion site should be avoided, unless aseptic technique is maintained (34).

Adherence to hand hygiene is generally suboptimal with rates under 40 % in multiple studies. Improving hand hygiene can be achieved through multiple educational interventions.


Maximum sterile barrier precautions

:


Raad et al

conducted a prospective randomized control study to determine the effectiveness of the maximum sterile precautions .they found that the control group had 6 times higher infection rates and the infections occurred early and mostly were caused by skin microorganisms(35).


Skin preparation:

Reducing colonization at the insertion site is a crucial part of CLABSI prevention. It can be done with aqueous povidone iodine, aqueous chlorhexidine, alcoholic chlorhexidine or alcoholic povidone iodine. A recent meta analysis revealed that the 2 %chlorhexidine is associated with a 50% decrease in the CLABSI rates compared to povidone iodine(36). However, a recent study by

Furuya et al

(23) identified the importance of allowing chlorhexidine to dry fully before CVC insertion in order to optimize the use of this agent. An economic analysis suggested that using chlorhexidine rather than povidone iodine would result in a 1.6% decrease in CLABSIs and a 0.23% decrease in mortality, as well as save $113 per catheter used(37). The proposed mechanism is believed to be prolonged antimicrobial effect, its lack of inactivation to blood and serum and synergistic effect with alcohol. However whether chlorhexidine alcohol combination is superior to alcoholic povidone iodine is still unresolved. The role of alcohol as antiseptic agent is often forgotten while describing chlorhexidine(38). CDC recommends >0.5% chlorhexidine alcohol to be used in case of central line insertion. However a recent Indian study conducted in 2013 by Kulkarni et al found that both povidone iodine and chlorhexidine had zero colony counts in skin preparation(39).


Maintenance:

Catheter site dressings can be done by transparent to semitransparent dressings or gauze dressings. The advantage with sterile dressings is that visual inspection can be done daily and they need to be changed once in 7 days unless gauze dressings which needs to be changed every 2 days. However if patient is in DIC or there is bleeding at the site of insertion gauze dressings are preferred(40).

The current recommendations are to assess the continued need for the catheter every day, perform catheter site care with Chlorhexidine at dressing changes, replace administration sets and add-on devices no more frequently than every 72 hours, unless contamination occurs, replace tubing used to administer blood, blood products, or lipids within 24 hours of start of infusion, change caps no more often than 72 hours or according to manufacturer’s recommendations and whenever the administration set is changed(41).

Shapey et al conducted a prospective audit in a university teaching hospital and found that several breaches were there in CVC post insertion care with a failure rate of 44.8% mostly in caps, dressings and proposed that focus should be shifted to best practice implementation rather than further teaching(42)

The significance of catheter maintenance or post insertion bundle was demonstrated by Guerin et al who showed that implementation of a post insertion bundle in hospitals with good compliance to insertion bundle resulted in decrease in CLABSIs from 5.7 to 1.1 CLABSIs per catheter days. He emphasized that insertion bundle by itself was not sufficient. The interventions done were assessing the catheter site daily, changing dressings if necessary, application of chlorhexidine sponge at the catheter site, assessing the need for catheter daily, performing hand hygiene and alcohol scrub before accessing hub each time(43).

Using closed container systems than open container infusion systems had significantly reduced the incidence of CLABSI in many studies. This was demonstrated by Maki et al who conducted a study in 4 countries and found that switching to closed infusion containers decreased CLABSIs from 10.1 to 3.3 per 1000 catheter days RR 0.33 p<0.001(44).


Prompt removal of catheters:


Zingg et al

in his study found that in several site visits, neither the nurse nor the treating physician knew why the patient had a CVC particularly in non ICU settings. They also showed that catheters in non ICU settings had a longer dwell time and lesser utilization(45) .


Trick et al

in his study found that 4.6% of catheter-days were not justified. Both of these research groups also found differences in CVC use between ICU and non-ICU settings: unjustified CVC–days were more common in the non-ICU settings. The median duration of CVC days were more common for catheters that were unjustified rather than justified. They also proposed as to consider removal of CVC if needed when patient is getting transferred out of ICU (46).